• Stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    According to the internationally recognized guidelines designated by the National Kidney Foundation, chronic kidney disease is clinically divided into 5 stages according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In stage 1 (the earliest stage), you have mild kidney damage, the filtration rate is normal or declines, and your kidney's ability to remove waste and liquid from the body is still at an acceptable level. Stage 5 represents renal failure, during which you need to rely on dialysis or kidney transplantation to survive.

    CKD Staging Glomerular Filtration Rate Renal Function Staging
    Stage 1 GFR is normal/elevated, R90 Mild kidney damage
    Stage 2 GFR=60 to 89 Mild decline in renal function
    Stage 3 GFR=30 to 59 Moderate decline in renal function
    Stage 4 GFR=15 to 29 Severe decline in renal function
    Stage 5 GFR below 15 Renal failure (uremia)
    Glomerular filtration rate - GFR

    GFR is the rate at which the kidney removes waste from the blood.

    To calculate GFR, we need to measure the amount of creatinine in your blood. Creatinine is the waste produced by muscle activity. If the blood creatinine level is higher than normal, it means that the renal function is declining.

    Common causes of chronic kidney disease:


    Diabetes mellitus


    For more than two thirds of CKD patients, their kidney disease are caused by glomerulonephritis, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. When kidney damageR3 months, renal structural or functional abnormalities that affect health can be defined as chronic kidney disease.

    What should patients with chronic kidney disease do:

    Follow instructions and work with your healthcare team

    Simply write down the questions you want to ask your doctor in your health diary

    Make regular appointments with doctors

    Review your test results with your doctor and dietitian to see how your diet is

    As time goes by, review your dietary requirements and dietary restrictions

    Kidney medical team:

    The medical team for treating chronic kidney disease is composed of various medical professionals.


    Nephrologists specialize in kidneys. Your nephrologists will judge the stage of your kidney disease, make a treatment plan for you through treatment guidelines, and will seek help from other team members as needed, such as dietitians, nephrology nurses, or other doctors (such as cardiologists).

    Nephrology nurse

    Nephrology nurses can answer questions about your health and why you feel this way, and help you understand the doctor's advice. Nephrology nurses can also be subdivided into nephrology nurses, dialysis nurses, hemodialysis nurses or peritoneal dialysis nurses.

    Registered dietitian

    Registered Dietitian (RD) is an expert in nutrition and the dietary needs of CKD people. Dietitians can help you make a diet plan according to your nutritional needs and what you like to eat. If you start dialysis, the dietitian will give you instructions according to your routine laboratory results. You can ask your dietitian any questions related to diet, nutrition, vitamins, drugs, medical issues and liquid balance.

    Specialist nurse of blood purification

    If you need dialysis in the future, you can choose to receive treatment in the dialysis center. Nurses and other relevant medical personnel will help you prepare and monitor the whole process during the treatment.